How can I synchronize several calendars of the same account with Android?
With Android you cannot synchronize several calendars of the same account with the default client up to now, as you know from Windows Phone. Android has used only the standard folder when you synchronize the Exchange server with ActiveSync. In order to be able to display additional calendars on the device, you can only search for an Exchange client for Android that can do this. (For example, I have found this app: http://www.nitrodesk.com TouchDown)
Or you can turn to ExMixedFolders, which merges your additional calendars in the standard calendar of your Exchange account.